It depends on your state laws. In Maryland the answer is no unless they have signed an authorization. The best way to enforce compliance with the timesheets is follow the progressive notification process for each infraction...verbal warning, written warning, 2nd written warning (optional), suspension, termination.
And you can definitely not do it if it brings the employee's wages below minimum wage or OT for all hours worked. That's from federal wage law (FLSA)
From an HR perspective, I would use a different method to entice or discipline....for example, place all NE ees names in a hat every quarter for those who have turned all weekly timesheets in on time....for a gift card to x.... Also are you holding managers accountable for their ees timesheets? There are lots of different ways to go about this but a wage deduction would not be one of the top ways....because like the other poster stated, in some states, you are required to have an authorized signature for any deduction from pay.